Shin Splints usually applies to pain in the front of the leg, occurring between the ankle and the knee normally 3-16cm above the foot. It is effectively an inflammatory reaction involving the deep tissues of the lower leg and may involve tendons & muscles. The pain is usually initiated by walking, running, or jumping.The pain can occur anteriorly or medially (the inner side).
Anterior Shin Splints: The Tibialis Anterior Muscle runs at the front of the shin to the foot allowing your foot to flex upwards towards the shin. If the foot and leg are biomechanically correct this muscle functions efficiently and without pain. When inflamed it causes pain. Inflammation can occur when the foot is pronated (the foot rolls inwards) causing tiny tears in the muscle.
Posterior Shin Splints: The Soleus and the Tibialis Posterior muscle attached around the back of the knee running down the back and inner side of the leg attaching to the foot. On pronation of the foot (the foot rolls outward), these muscles are forced to become twisted causing tiny tears or “pulled” producing pain.